Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis)

Interesting :

Male freshwaters crocodile with 12 feet in length is larger than female one which has longer tail and much more of scales.The freshwaters crocodile's head is shorter than saltwater crocodile's and it has 4 armor plates on its neck lining clearly and back legs with little fascia. The big tail helps to swim and protect it from dangers.

Habitat :

The Siamese crocodile is native to Cambodia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Wetlands (inland) HABITAT AND ECOLOGY Crocodylus siamensis occurs in a wide range of lowland freshwater habitats, including slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, seasonal oxbow lakes, marshes and swamps (Smith 1931; Daltry et al. 2003; Platt et al. 2002, 2006; Bezuijen et al. in press). During the wet season, individuals disperse across flooded landscapes (one radio-tracked individual in Cambodia moved up to 25 km before returning to a dry season site; Simpson et al. 2006b). The species has been recorded up to 600 m elevation (Daltry et al. 2003). Crocodylus siamensis is a medium-sized species, with most individuals attaining a total length of less than 3.5 m (Smith 1919). Nesting ecology is poorly documented and fewer than a few dozen wild nests have been located to date. Wild nests recorded in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand were mounds located on floating vegetation mats or on the banks of lakes or rivers (Platt et al. 2006, Simpson et al. 2006a, Starr et al. 2010, Bezuijen et al. in press). Nesting occurs in the late dry season and and wet season. Clutch size observed in wild nests ranged from 11-26 eggs (Simpson and Han 2004, Starr et al. 2010, Bezuijen et al. in press). Captive C. siamensis produce clutches of 6-50 eggs (Youngprapakorn et al. 1971, Platt et al. 2011). Hatchlings emerge in the wet season after 70-80 days incubation (Brazaitis and Watanbe 1983, Platt et al. 2011, Bezuijen et al. in press). Fidelity to nesting sites has been recorded (Simpson et al. 2006a). Similar to many other crocodilians, C. siamensis feeds on a wide variety of prey such as invertebrates, frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals, including carrion (Daltry et al. 2003, Bezuijen 2010). Other scientific studies of C. siamensis have included information on phylogeography and population genetics (Gratten 2003), seasonal sperm cycles (Kitiyanant et al. 1994) and the antimicrobial properties of its blood (Merchant et al. 2006). Hybridization of captive C. siamensis with C. rhombifer and C. porosus occurs (Chavananikul et al. 1994, Thang 1994), and the chromosome number of C. siamensis and hybrids, as well as DNA methods to distinguish them, has been identified (Youngprapakorn 1991, Fitzsimmons et al. 2002, Srikulnath et al. 2012).

Food :

Most freshwaters crocodile eat animal with medium size such as fish, frog, bird including small mammals or even the big animal, it can tear the prey to become small pieces easily and digest it slowly so it can survive without eating anything for 15-30 days. It prefers to stay alone and finds food in slow moving water like swamp, river, and some lakes with not exceed 5 feet in depth. In hot day, it likes to sink in the water.

Current Status :

Most conservation efforts for C. siamensis were initiated in the past decade and are relatively recent. More conservation work for the species has been conducted in Cambodia than any other range state, including extensive status surveys and a long-term programme by the Government of Cambodia’s Forestry Administration and Fauna & Flora International. This programme has achieved the monitoring and protection of breeding sites, training of ranger patrols, and community-based conservation initiatives (Daltry et al. 2006, Simpson and Ratanapich 2007, Simpson et al. 2006a). Veal Veng Marsh, the Areng River, and the Sre Ambel/ Kampong Saom River are the focus of enforcement patrols and community-based conservation management, which have demonstrated success in reducing poaching since 2001 (Daltry et al. 2006, Simpson and Ratanapich 2007, Simpson et al. 2006a, Oum et al. 2010). Additional community sanctuaries are planned in northeast Cambodia and a national re-introduction program will be launched in 2012 (Daltry and Starr 2010, Siamese Crocodile Task Force in prep.). Elsewhere, status surveys were conducted in Lao PDR between 2003 and 2008, conservation priorities were identified (Bezuijen et al. in press) and a management plan to protect breeding sites was prepared for one province (Cox and Somvongsa 2008). Community workshops were held in 2006 and 2007 to document local knowledge of crocodiles (Bezuijen et al. 2006, Mollot et al. 2007). Most C. siamensis localities in Lao PDR are outside the national protected area system and conservation will rely on community-based approaches. In Thailand, a re-introduction programme was initiated by the Royal Thai Forest Service and Crocodile Management Association of Thailand, with 20 crocodiles released in Pang Sida National Park in 2005 and 2006 (Temsiripong 2001, 2007). Few crocodiles were detected during subsequent monitoring (Temsiripong 2007) and further releases are being considered. Severe flooding in Thailand in 2011 hindered the implementation of some re-introduction plans (Y. Temsiripong pers. obs.). In Viet Nam, 60 captive individuals were released in Cat Tien National Park between 2001 and 2004 (Polet 2006) and the population has been irregularly monitored since then. The most recent surveys (2010-2011) confirmed that the population has increased in size, but that crocodiles continue to be hunted by local residents (Pahl 2012). In Indonesia, Mesangat Lake is owned by an oil palm company, and in 2010 the company entered into a partnership with a local foundation, Yayasan Ulin, to jointly manage habitats at the lake (R. Stuebing in litt.). The large captive populations of C. siamensis held on farms (see Use and Trade) represent a potential source for re-introduction programs, and farms in Thailand and Viet Nam have donated C. siamensis for this purpose. Genetically pure C. siamensis have been found in captive holdings in Cambodia (Starr et al. 2009), Thailand (Srikulnath et al. 2012) and Viet Nam (Fitzsimmons et al. 2002). At the invitation of range states, the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group has conducted reviews and recommendations for the trade and management of captive C. siamensis and other crocodilians, in Cambodia (Jelden et al. 2005), Indonesia (Webb and Jenkins 1991a), Thailand (Webb and Jenkins 1991b) and Viet Nam (Jelden et al. 2008).


CLASS : Reptilia

ORDER : Crocodylia

FAMILY : Crocodylidae

GENUS : Crocodylus

SPECIES : Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis)

Conservation status : Critically Endangered

Reference :

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Update : 11 April 2017