Black-necked Stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus)

Interesting :

The Black-necked Stork is the large sized and quite tall bird. It has the size of approximately 130-132 centimeters. The head and the neck are beautiful shiny bluish black. The mouth is also the same black. Feathers from the neck to both sides of the shoulder are white. Feathers from the middle of the back to the tail edge are black. The lower part of the body, wing tip, and tail tip are white. The middle of its wing has the black stripe. The leg is very long and is reddish yellow. The male and female have the same characteristics. They differs from each other only the iris, which the male is dark brown and the female is yellow. At present, it has the small number and can rarely be found.

Habitat :

The Black-necked Stork has a hometown in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, India, Thailand (rarely to be found), Lao, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, New Guinea, and Australia. HABITAT AND ECOLOGY It inhabits freshwater marshes and lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Sharma 2007, Clancy & Andren 2010, Clancy 2011), pools in open forest and large rivers (Sharma 2007) and flooded grassland (del Hoyo et al. 1992), up to an altitude of 1,200 m (Sharma 2007). It occasionally uses mangroves and coastal habitats (Santiapillai et al. 1997, Maheswaran et al. 2004, Sharma 2007), such as estuaries and brackish lagoons (Santiapillai et al. 1997, Clancy pers. obs). It also frequents artificial habitats such as reservoirs (Maheswaran et al. 2004), sewage ponds and irrigation stores (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Sundar 2004). Although it shows a preference for natural wetlands throughout the year, it uses similar artificial habitats like rice paddies for a short period of time, particularly during and after the monsoon season, when natural wetlands may become too deep for foraging (Sundar 2004). It will also forage in wet or dry wheat fields and flooded fallow fields, the latter especially in summer when the extent of natural wetlands is reduced (Sundar 2004). In Uttar Pradesh, north-central India the species is common in agricultural landscapes, foraging in flooded rice paddies, irrigation canals and roadside ditches (Sundar 2011b). It is carnivorous (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and has high food requirements (Rahmani 1987, Maheswaran and Rahmani 2002, Maheswaran 2003b), tending to be largely territorial, being recorded in flocks very occasionally (Sundar et al. 2006), and becoming more aggressive as food is depleted (Maheswaran and Rahmani 2001). It feeds in shallow water up to 0.5m deep (Garnett and Crowley 2000) but mostly 0.05 to 0.3 m in New South Wales (Clancy 2011), and takes fish (Garnett and Crowley 2000, Maheswaran and Rahmani 2001, Maheswaran and Rahmani 2002, Clancy 2011), reptiles and frogs (Garnett and Crowley 2000, Clancy 2011), some waterfowl (Verma 2003, Clancy 2011), turtle eggs (Chauhan and Andrews 2006), crabs, molluscs, insects and other arthropods (Ishtiaq et al. 2010, Sundar 2011b, Clancy 2011). It has also been observed feeding on its own dead chicks in Dudwa, N.P. India (Maheswaran & Rahmani 2005). It has been observed using tactile feeding methods (Maheswaran and Rahmani 2001, Maheswaran and Rahmani 2002), although more recent research in New South Wales found visual methods to be most commonly used (Clancy 2011). Foraging occurred most commonly in the morning and late afternoon, with loafing during the middle of the day (Clancy 2011). Prey-handling time increased as prey size increased and fishes of 4-6cm were more frequently taken by adult storks (Maheswaran and Rahmani 2008). It is a territorial breeder (Rahmani 1987, Santiapillai et al. 1997, Sundar 2004, Maheswaran and Rahmani 2005, Clancy & Ford 2013), and pairs stay together during successive seasons, some even after breeding is over (Sundar 2003, Maheswaran 2003b, Clancy pers. obs). Nests are built in old trees (Rahmani 1987) and occasionally on shrubs in wetlands (Clancy & Ford 2011). In India, it starts to nest from August onwards (Bhatt 2006), with earlier breeders in northern India timing their egg laying in September and October to coincide with the end of the monsoon season (Maheswaran 2003a, Sundar 2003). Consequently, breeding success is influenced positively by both the north-east and south-west monsoons (Sundar 2011a). In New South Wales, Australia, eggs are laid from May to August, with fledging occurring between October and January (Sundar et al. 2006, Clancy & Ford 2013). Breeding pairs generally raise one or two chicks and three is not uncommon (Maheswaran and Rahmani 2005), although four and five is rare (Sundar 2003, 2011a, Sundar et al. 2007). Chicks generally stay in natal territories until the subsequent breeding season, although they stay longer if adult birds do not breed in the subsequent year (Sundar 2003), although early dispersal of young was found in New South Wales, Australia, with some birds dispersing within a few months of fledging but others persisting in the territory until at least the next breeding season (Clancy & Ford 2013). Although the process of laying and raising chicks to independence takes up to 12 months, ten out of 25 pairs that bred successfully in one year, were also successful in the subsequent year (Clancy and Ford 2013).

Food :

The Black-necked Stork eats fish, shrimp, shell, frog, tadpole, and some kind of insect.

Behavior :

The Black-necked Stork does not like to stay in a troop. It normally seeks for the food alone and will stay in pairs in the breeding season. They will sometimes stay together only with its family. It lives on the tree which grows separately on the mountaintop or the tree which grows near the water, It seeks for the food around the swamp or near the water.

Current Status :

Conservation Actions Underway CITES Appendix I. In Australia the species is listed as rare in Queensland and Endangered in New South Wales. It has been upgraded to Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, giving it full protection. It is a conservation priority in Cambodia. It occurs in a number of protected areas including several national parks in Australia and India. Studies on the distribution and abundance levels of this species are presently ongoing in South-East Asia and India (K.S.G. Sundar in litt. 2007). An analysis subsequent to these studies is expected to provide improved population estimates. Detailed studies have been carried out in New South Wales, Australia are providing improved population information for that state (Clancy 2010a, Clancy & Andren 2010, Clancy & Ford 2013, Clancy & Kingsford 2015). A long-term monitoring study has been established in India to understand impacts of land use change and rainfall patterns on the species (Sundar 2011a). Conservation Actions Proposed Protect remaining habitat, especially in South and South-East Asia. Try to mitigate in advance against the loss of habitat to sea-level rise in Australia. Carry out range-wide surveys to accurately determine the total population size and trends. Prevent birds being captured for trade to collections and zoos in Asia. Prevent hunting of the species. Study the importance of flooded rice paddies for dispersal and linkage of sub-populations through genetic and telemetry studies (Sundar 2004, K.S.G. Sundar in litt. 2007). In most areas of the species's range regulate landscape-scale farming practices and development projects to incorporate maintenance and preservation of natural wetlands, and reduce changes in land-use such as conversion to drier crops (Sundar 2004). Carry out long-term research in multiple locations into its breeding biology and behaviour (Maheswaran 2003b, Sundar 2011a). Continue to monitor wetlands in northern Cambodia (using photo-traps) to help understand breeding biology and success (K.S.G. Sundar in litt. 2007). More species-specific (BNS) surveys to be undertaken across its range countries (G. Maheswaran in litt. 2016). Continue to colour band nestlings and research the impact of powerline collisions in Australia (Clancy in litt. 2016).


CLASS : Aves

ORDER : Ciconiiformes

FAMILY : Ciconiidae

GENUS : Ephippiorhynchus

SPECIES : Black-necked Stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus)

Conservation status : Near Threatened

Reproductive :

The bird breeds and builds the nest for laying the eggs approximately from the end of rainy season to the beginning of winter. It builds the nest on the treetop which grows on the mountaintop or near the swamp. It uses this nest at the end of the year and lays 3 or 5 egg. The eggs are white.

Reference :

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Point of view :

Update : 06 April 2017