HABITAT AND ECOLOGY In Borneo it is apparently confined to the banks of rainforest streams and rivers throughout its life cycle and has been recorded only from heavily forested areas. It has not been reported from disturbed or heavily logged forests. Its larvae live on the bottom of riffles and rapids. In Sumatra and Java it is found in rivers or along small streams in various habitats, from primary rainforest to degraded areas and even near cities. On these islands, the species can tolerate a considerable amount of pollution and is still abundant where other species have disappeared.
Update : 06 April 2017